A Forgotten Town of Thirsty Residents- The State of the Water Crisis in Redcliff, Zimbabwe

A FORGOTTEN TOWN OF THIRSTY RESIDENTS: THE STATE OF THE WATER CRISIS IN REDCLIFF, ZIMBABWE (19 April 2017)

1.     INTRODUCTION

Every person in Zimbabwe has the right to safe, clean and potable water.[1] The Human Right to Water and Sanitation (HRWS) was recognised as a human right by the United Nations (UN) General Assembly on 28 July 2010[2]. The HRWS is part and parcel of international law, by reference to human rights treaties, declarations and other relevant standards.[3] Furthermore, it is important to note that the Constitution of Zimbabwe does not only recognise this right to water but goes an extra mile to domesticate the right to food.[4] Court precedents such as the landmark ruling by Justice Bhunu in Mushoriwa v City of Harare HH 195/2014 speaks volumes about the importance attached to the enjoyment of the right to water. This is further cemented by Justice Muremba in Hove v City of Harare HH 205/2016.

Nevertheless, the human/legal right to water and sanitation is not being respected and enjoyed in some parts of the country. The town of Redcliff close to Kwekwe is one of the towns characterised by acute water shortages, water cuts and their attendant problems that include but not limited to outbreaks of water borne diseases, flight of investors and closure/downscaling of business operations.

The water supply to the town has never been stable before and after the closure of ZISCO Steel and it became worse after the Municipality of Redcliff (local authority) took over the water management role from ZISCO/NewZim Steel. It is now crystal clear that the local authority has no capacity to manage water supply in the most effective and efficient manner.

According to residents’ testimonies, the situation deteriorated since the 24th of October 2016, when there was absolutely no water supply in most parts of Rutendo, Simbi Park, Torwood and Millennium Park.[5]  However, it does not mean that there was water supply before the 24th of October 2016 but the supply was sporadic and infrequent.

In Simbi Park, the residents had no water supply for many years, yet the residents continue to be billed as if they have access to this basic commodity.[6]

In protest on the 19th of April 2017, residents, ratepayers and other stakeholders affected by the water crisis under the Municipality of Redcliff took to the streets demanding the following:

  • The immediate resignation of the Honourable Mayor, Councillors and Management of the Municipality of Redcliff based on allegations that they had failed to run the affairs of the local authority;
  • That the Ministry of Local Government appoints a Commission to run the affairs of the local authority;
  • The setting up a Commission of Enquiry into the mismanagement of Funds, corruption and other irregularities; and
  • That the City of Kwekwe and the ZINWA take-over water management in Redcliff.[7]

 

It had also been alleged that some individuals were taking advantage of the water crisis to enrich themselves through selling water to desperate water seekers. This was very common in the town and some well respected senior public officials were also implicated.

The outcry from the residents thus motivated an investigation that culminated into this report.

2.     FINDINGS

Through face to face interviews and the review of secondary data, the following findings were made:

2.1  Reality of the Water Crisis

A resident of Rutendo Township confirmed that there was no water supply at his house situated close to Mutegude Shopping Centre since the 24th of October 2016.[8] In order to get water supply, his family travels one kilometre away to a borehole, situated opposite the Rutendo Town Council Administration office where water seekers pay US$1 to have access to it. Almost all the time, they take close to two hours to access it because of the long queue from thirsty residents.[9] The picture below that was taken on the 19th of April 2017 shows residents largely comprised of women, and children queuing for water at a borehole which was sunk by a well-wisher in the area.

Previously the situation was better since they were offered free water by the Rutendo Islamic Centre before it was forced to stop by some government authorities.[10]

In the absence of water supply, the situation would have been better if the local authority had not refused well-wishers who wanted to drill boreholes in the suburbs. The first attempt was made by Mr. Matorino, who was born and bred in Redcliff and felt that he wanted to plough back into the community that groomed him. A few boreholes were sunk in Torwood and it is alleged that the local authority and politicians in the area stopped him. To that end, boreholes that were planned for Simbi Park and some parts of Rutendo were stopped.[11] It is unfortunate that the residents of Redcliff have gone for so long without water supply yet the local authority continues to demand payment without supplying water indicates that the authority is both despotic and tyrannical.

The majority of the residents visited have dug wells at their houses, without which the situation would have been dire. Concerns were raised that most of the wells are shallow and contaminated with sewer, and other chemical contaminants from near-by industrial establishments. There are also many cases in which children drowned and died when they fell into these death traps.

2.2  Causes of the Water Crisis

First and foremost, it is important to highlight at the outset that the situation obtaining clearly demonstrates the local authority’s lack of capacity to provide effective water management to its residents. Many views were expressed on the causes of the water crisis in Redcliff, starting with the view that the City of Kwekwe and its management have been too cruel to disconnect water supply to the Municipality of Redcliff for the love of money at the detriment of human life. There would be nothing wrong for the City of Kwekwe to institute legal proceedings against the Municipality of Redcliff to recover the unpaid water bills but disconnecting water supply and causing suffering on the people shows the leadership’s insensitivity to human dignity. It is alleged that on the 9th of April 2017, the Honourable Mayor of the Municipality of Redcliff, addressed residents and informed them that they owed the City of Kwekwe millions of dollars in unpaid water bills and as a result they were disconnected by Kwekwe. [12]

The local authority emphasises that the residents were to blame for the water crisis since they were not paying for the water that they consume. It is alleged that the local authority expects around US$600,000 per month yet they are only receiving around US$30,000. As a result, the local authority has failed to pay its obligations to the City of Kwekwe, where the debt is now around US$2 million. The total unpaid water bills from the residents have reached a whopping US$8 million.[13]

The Mayor of the City of Kwekwe told Chitumba (2017) of the Chronicle Newspaper that the problem was attributed to a broken down pump as well as water restrictions from ZINWA because of an unpaid raw water bill of US$1.2 million.[14]

Water to Redcliff residents follow a long and winding process. According to the Anti-Corruption Trust of Southern Africa (2015), such a water supply chain is not sustainable. The Municipality gets its water from the City of Kwekwe, which in turn buys raw water from ZINWA.  Initially, the water supply chain was even longer since the Municipality was buying its water from ZISCO Steel, after which ZISCO would have bought the same from the City of Kwekwe. At each stage of the water supply process, expenses were increasing resulting in residents in Redcliff buying it (water) more expensively as compared to residents of Kwekwe.

Furthermore, it would be a remiss of this research if it is not highlighted that some problems bedevilling local authorities are caused by senior civil servants who protect local authority staff no matter the nature or gravity of the problems at hand. A meeting with residents’ associations revealed that some local authority staff and politicians boast of protection from higher offices. It is alleged that when the petition attached hereto, was served one of the politicians was quoted saying that his supporters in higher offices will simply put it in the bin and he is not worried at all. Adding salt to injury, there were attempts to pour water on the petitioners and demonstrators[15]

 

2.3  Selling Water to Desperate Water Seekers

It is a reality that water was being sold to desperate residents. Among individuals selling water included senior public officials. Water was being sold under the guise of recouping electricity and other costs. The following spots were identified:

  • Residents were paying US$1 to get water at a borehole opposite the local authority’s administration office in Rutendo Township. It is alleged that the money was given to the Borehole Committee and it is meant for servicing the same;
  • Some individuals were selling clean water at a price of US$10 per 200 litre drum and dirty water for construction at a rate of US$5 per 200 litre drum;
  • It has been claimed that Rutendo Primary School was allegedly charging for electricity and not for water. Names of all individuals who pay are entered in a register and the access to water is strictly for all those who pay to the school.

 

There were other entities that were giving free water before being allegedly stopped by the local authority. The following is part of the list thereof;

  • The Rutendo Islamic Centre was forced to stop giving water to residents for free. A visit made on the 19th of April 2017 shows that the Centre had complied and stopped giving water to residents;
  • Nyaradzo Funeral Services in Redcliff was stopped;
  • Also forced to stop drilling boreholes for free was the said Mr. Matorino, who was drilling boreholes as part of efforts to pay back to the community that groomed him;
  • The Emirates Foundation allegedly drilled a borehole in Simbi Park close to the shops but the drilling was allegedly stopped;
  • It is also alleged that there was a certain politician known as Chinhara who drilled some boreholes during political campaigns as part of efforts to win hearts. It is said that when he lost, he surrendered the boreholes to the local authority but these boreholes were not maintained until they all broke down. However, some desperate residents repaired the boreholes on their own and using own resources;
  • Many individuals who did not want to be named in this report were stopped by the local authority though some of them continued giving free water since water cannot be denied to anyone as part of the Zimbabwean norms and values ‘ubuntu’.

 

2.4  Health Implications of the Water Crisis

The Rutendo, Simbi Park and Ridgeway Residents and Ratepayers Association (2017) in its Media Release of 18 April 2017, claims that on the 10th of December 2016, there was a typhoid outbreak in Redcliff resulting in more than 117 cases of typhoid reported. Desperate residents have been left with no option but to resort to unprotected water sources.

 

Many residents did not have water in their toilets and were using near-by bushes to relieve/ease themselves. A bush along the railway line close to Simbi Park is a clear testimony of this problem.  This is against concerted efforts by the Government of Zimbabwe dissuading open defecation.

 

In such cases, the local authority would be expected to bring water bowsers but the local authority has not done anything.

 

It is factual that the local authority and the company that put the sewer pipes in Rutendo in the Magamba area messed up. I am failing to understand why they put sewer pipes in such a manner that sewer doesn’t flow. If I become the Minister of Local Government today, I will demand an investigation and where possible demand that all those who were there then compensate the government from their own pockets. Maybe they paid bribes and did a shoddy job knowing very well that the inspectors cannot complain after receiving bribe money.

(Testimony from a resident of Magamba area in Rutendo, Simbi Park, Redcliff)

In many suburbs, raw sewer was seen flowing all over and residents in an area known as Magamba which is inhabited by war veterans is the most affected. A resident in the area did not have nice words for residents of the Magamba area as well as local authority engineers and a company that was given the tender to put sewer pipes. [16]

 

 

 

2.5  Attitude of the Local Authority

The majority of the residents interviewed pointed out that the local authority is not sensitive to the plight of the residents but is rather too rude. On the 19th of April 2017, representatives of the Rutendo, Simbi Park and Ridgeway Residents and Ratepayers Association complained that the conduct of one of the senior leaders was unacceptable. It is alleged that he almost mockingly poured water that he was drinking to the demonstrators.[17] Another complaint is that water was only supplied to areas where senior government officials reside.  The Rutendo, Simbi Park and Ridgeway Residents and Ratepayers Association (2017) in its Media Release of 18 April 2017, complain that “… leadership of the local authority boasts through claims that they are well connected to senior government officials to such an extent that all efforts made by residents will not bring any results. Indeed there is a feeling that there are some senior government officials and ministers who back the local authority regardless of pathetic service delivery, corruption and mal-administration”. In keeping thereof, a local authority should be people centered and it is sad that the residents are treated with the lack of respect yet the local authorities themselves are specifically created to serve these people.

3.     IMPLICATIONS OF THE REDCLIFF WATER CRISIS

Apart of being the leading cause of water-borne diseases such as cholera and typhoid to name but a few, the water crisis significantly affects development. The following are some of the implications of the problem if it is not curbed:

  • Typhoid and Cholera. In December 2017, 117 cases of typhoid were allegedly reported in the town due to contaminated water;
  • Use of alternative toilets: Toilets have no running water and residents are resorting to the use of bushes to ease themselves. The railway line passing through Simbi Park and Rutendo is an ‘eyesore’;
  • Scares away investors: What is undeniable is that no investor wants to invest in a town where there is no water;
  • Employers find it difficult to retain staff: An employee recently transferred to Redcliff refused the transfer because of water challenges in the town. On the other side, another police officer staying in Rutendo was contemplating approaching the employer seeking a transfer to another town where there is water;
  • Affects business: Many businesses operating in the town were finding it difficult to operate. A visit to a night club in one of the suburbs made startling findings of unflushed faeces in the toilet. This again could trigger a health disaster;
  • Trigger civil strife: The demonstration against the water crisis speaks volumes about an impending civil strife if the problem is not immediately addressed.
  • Reduces confidence in the leadership: Confidence in the leadership is at its lowest. This explains why the petition from the residents has called for the resignation of the entire leadership of the local authority.

4.     PROPOSED SOLUTIONS

It appears that the local authority is already on the hunt for investors to help in the setting up of a water treatment plant. [18] This would be the most sustainable solution, though it is hampered by resource constraints. A resident of Redcliff who chose to remain anonymous supported the idea and went further to say that the local authority could start by refurbishing the old infrastructure that was being used by ZISCO Steel to tap on water from Cactus dam.[19] However, he stated that the ZISCO water infrastructure had a very strong water pump, which was stolen. However, the majority of former employees of ZISCO confess to know who stole it and where it is.[20] Residents and ratepayers associations in Redcliff indicated that in the interim it was important for the City of Kwekwe to supply water directly and bill the residents. This solution was made based on the revelations that money paid by the residents was not being remitted to the City of Kwekwe by the Municipality of Redcliff.[21] On the other side, the local authority is making efforts to mobilize money to clear the water debt. Each household is being forced to pay between US$10 and US$20 per month in order the raise the money needed.[22]

5.     CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

What is undeniable is the fact that Redcliff water crisis speaks volumes about the lack of capacity within the rank and file of the local authority to come up with a permanent solution to the problem, such as setting up its own water treatment plant.[23] Relying on water supply from the City of Kwekwe is not only unsustainable but is expensive for the residents. The other perspective is to accept the reality that there is no shortage of water in Kwekwe where it is drawn from but that the Municipality of Redcliff has been disconnected by the City of Kwekwe for non-payment of water bills. This brings a plethora of legal issues that need answers. The following are some of the legal questions that need answers:

  • Are water disconnections legal in the context of the international law, new Constitution as well as new court precedents such as Mushoriwa v City of Harare HH 195/14 and Hove v City of Harare HH205/16 among others?
  • Is it legal for a local authority to disconnect water supply before following the due process of the law, in cases where the bills themselves are in dispute?
  • Is ZINWA allowed to disconnect water supply for non-payment of bills for raw water that it sells to the local authorities?
  • How relevant is ZINWA in the water supply chain in Zimbabwe?

 

In keeping with the above, it is high time that the Zimbabwean legal profession pronounces itself on the subject. In Redcliff, it is alleged that some innocent residents died as a result of water borne diseases and in December 2016 alone more than 117 cases of typhoid were reported.

As a way forward, one will be convinced to agree with the residents in their petition of 19 April 2017 that the leadership of the local authority has failed as the Honourable Mayor was quoted on the 19th of April 2017 admitting failure. Furthermore, in the public interest, an Interim Commission should be appointed to run the affairs of the town pending other permanent arrangements.

The following are some of the areas linked to water and sanitation that should be investigated or explored:

  • An all-stakeholder meeting involving the City of Kwekwe, Municipality of Redcliff. ZINWA, Resident associations, the private sector, the health sector and investors to name but a few, should be organised;
  • Transparency linked to the awarding of the tender to the company that is renovating the sewerage plant situated close to the residence quarters of employees of the Zimbabwe Republic Police;
  • Transparency linked to the awarding of the tender to a company that renovated Torwood toilets;
  • The rationale of the stop order facility through which local authority staff have agreed with the management to collect and pocket money for water bills at the detriment of undermining the local authority’s revenue collecting base;
  • The selling of water by different stakeholders, including local authority staff;

 


Annexes

1.     Residents Petition

PETITION TO THE HONOURABLE MAYOR, COUNCILLORS AND MANAGEMENT OF THE MUNICIPALITY OF REDCLIFF AS WELL AS THE SENIOR MANAGEMENT OF THE MINISTRY OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT

(19 April 2017)

We, the undersigned residents, ratepayers and other stakeholders residing in Rutendo, Simbi Park and Ridgeway, do hereby petition the Honourable Mayor, Councillors and the Management of the Municipality of Redcliff, (hereinafter referred to as the local authority), as well as the Senior Management of the Ministry of Local Government, calling upon them to urgently address the following issues:

  1. Water Crisis: Section 77 of the Constitution of Zimbabwe, recognize that every person has the right to safe, clean and potable water and to achieve this the State must take reasonable legislative and other measures to achieve the progressive realization of this right. However, in Redcliff, (excluding the areas where the Mayor and some senior local authority staff stay), we have gone for months without water. Lack of water makes our town unhygienic and may trigger an outburst of diseases. For instance on the 10th of December 2016, there was a typhoid outbreak in Redcliff resulting in more than 117 cases of typhoid reported. Adding misery and giving a gloomy picture towards a solution to the water crisis, on the 9th day of April 2017, the Honourable Mayor, confessed to all of us that he had failed to find a solution to the water crisis.
  2. Lack of Accountability of monies collected as levies: Previous petitions to the local authority demanding accountability of the US$10 special levy as well the education levy failed to elicit a positive response from the local authority. We want to know how much was collected as well as how much of it was spent and on what. We are demanding access to the information, which we know that we are all entitled to through reference to Section 63 of the Constitution of Zimbabwe, which says that “Every Zimbabwean citizen or permanent resident, including juristic persons and the Zimbabwean media, has the right of access to any information held by the State or by any institution or agency of government at every level, in so far as the information is required in the interests of public accountability”. In keeping thereof, we are demanding that you give us all the information, which we have requested. Transparency must be fostered by providing the public with timely, accessible and accurate information, which we do not see in the local authority
  3. Poor Service Delivery (referring to damaged and unrepaired roads, absence of public lighting, neglected garbage collection: We rate service delivery by the local authority as one of the poorest in the country. Roads facilitate the free movement of people, goods and services yet they are very poor. A total of 12 tower lights are all not working. Furthermore, the town is an ‘eyesore’ due to uncollected garbage. What surprises us most is the fact that you charge us for all these non-existent services. We are thus demanding that the local authority improves in these areas.
  4. Stop reprisals against the leadership of resident associations: We have noted with great concern that there are increased number of reprisals against the leadership of resident associations in Redcliff, which must be stopped immediately. Apart from the court actions, some of our leaders have also been victims of verbal attacks by the local authority which is totally unacceptable.

Our Recommendations:

In keeping with the above, we herby submit the following recommendations to the local authority as well as senior management in the Ministry of Local Government:

  1. Resignation of the Mayor, Councillors and Management of the local authority: What cannot be denied is the fact that the local authority has failed to run the local authority and manage the affairs of the people in Redcliff. Our situation is becoming worse by the day. This explains why we are asking the Mayor, Councillors and Management of the local authority to resign.
  2. Appointing a Commission to run the affairs of the local authority: It is our request to the Ministry of Local Government to appoint a Commission to run the local authority. This will not be the first in the country since other cities such as Gweru are being run by Commissions.
  3. Set up a Commission of Enquiry into the Management of Funds at the Municipality, corruption and other irregularities: Ignoring public calls to investigate the local authority is self-defeating and could be one of the reasons why the local authority is in its current messy. A Commission of Enquiry should be set up to investigate a number of issues that include but not limited to: adherence to good practices on financial management; accountability of levies (special and education levy), accountability of money received from the sale of stands, award of tenders (e.g. renovation of Torwood toilet;, servicing of stands etc);, use of stop order facilities and allowing local authority staff to collect and pocket money for water and utility bills; ,
  4. City of Kwekwe / ZINWA to take-over water management: The local authority has failed to address the water crisis, and we are thus asking the City of Kwekwe/ ZINWA to take over and start managing the water situation in the town.

We know that it is within our rights through Section 59 of the Constitution of Zimbabwe Amendment (No. 20) Act 2013, to demonstrate and to present this petition, in a peaceful manner which we have demonstrated.

We, hereby sign this petition and asking the Mayor, Councillors and Management of the local authority as well as the senior management under the Ministry of Local Government to take appropriate action as prayed above.

 

 

2.     Media Release from the Residents Association

Rutendo, Simbi Park and Ridgeway Residents and Ratepayers Association

0716868831 / 0776185624/ 0775534543

______________________________________________________________________________

DEMONSTRATION AGAINST DEPLORABLE SERVICE DELIVERY, WATER CRISIS AND CORRUPTION IN REDCLIFF

(18 April 2017)

On the 19th of April 2017, residents, ratepayers and other stakeholders residing in Rutendo, Simbi Park and Ridgeway, will be demonstrating against the water crisis that has seen the suburbs going for at least 5 months without water in their houses. On the 10th of December 2016, there was a typhoid outbreak in Redcliff resulting in more than 117 cases of typhoid reported.  The demonstrators were provoked by the Honourable Mayor of Redcliff, who openly confessed on the 9th of April 2017 that he and his full Council as well as the Management of the Municipality of Redcliff had failed to resolve the water crisis. In other words, the Mayor was hopeless, which means that the water crisis was going to continue and another diseases is feared since residents have resorted to unprotected water sources. When a leader gives up the fight, this demoralizes the rest of his team and hence the call that he immediately resigns other than clinging to power and that the Ministry of Local Government sets up a Commission to run the affairs of the town.

On the 19th of April 2017, the demonstrators will meet at Dollar Shopping Centre as well as Mutegude Shopping Centre situated in Rutendo Township of Redcliff in Zimbabwe at 7:00 a.m, where they will peacefully march to the Civic Centre to present a petition signed by residents, ratepayers and other stakeholders in the town.

Apart from the water crisis, the residents decried the lack of accountability of monies collected as levies, poor service delivery; and increased  reprisals against the leadership of resident associations by the local authority. It is alleged that all those speaking out against deplorable service delivery, corruption and lack of accountability are often attacked and targeted by the local authority, which the petitioners said must be stopped.

The leadership of the local authority boasts through claims that they are well connected to senior government officials to such an extent that all efforts made by residents will not bring any results. Indeed there is a feeling that there are some senior government officials and ministers who back the local authority regardless of pathetic service delivery, corruption and mal-administration.

On the menu of recommendations made include:

  1. The resignation of the Mayor, Councillors and Management of the local authority;
  2. The appointment of a Commission to run the affairs of the local authority;
  3. The setting up of a Commission of Enquiry into the management of Funds at the Municipality, corruption and other irregularities: and
  4. Plea to the City of Kwekwe / ZINWA that they take-over water management of the small town:

For Media Enquiries Call:

0716868831 / 0776185624/ 0775534543 (Representatives of the Rutendo, Simbi Park and Ridgeway Residents and Ratepayers Association and Organisers of the Demonstration)

[1] Section 77 of the Constitution of Zimbabwe Amendment (No.20) Act 2013

[2] Resolution 64/292: The human right to water and sanitation”. United Nations. August 2010. Retrieved 28 April 2017.

[3] The Universal Declaration on Human Rights (UDHR) of 1948 and International Covenant on Economic Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) of 1966 implicitly recognises this right. Other treaties that explicitly recognize the right include the 1979 Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) and the 1989 Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC). The first resolutions about the HRWS were passed by the UN General Assembly and the UN Human Rights Council in 2010.

[4] Section 77 of the Constitution of Zimbabwe Amendment (No.20) Act 2013

[5] Resident Video Interviewed by: Chinhamo, O. and Bidi, M. (19th April 2017).

[6] Ibid

[7] Refer to the Annex -1- being the Petition which was signed

[8] Resident. Interviewed by: Chinhamo, O. and Bidi, M. (19th April 2017).

[9] Ibid

[10] Member of the Rutendo, Simbi Park and Ridgeway Residents and Ratepayers Association

. Interviewed by: Chinhamo, O. and Bidi, M (19th April 2017).

[11] Member of the Rutendo, Simbi Park and Ridgeway Residents and Ratepayers Association

. Interviewed by: Chinhamo, O. and Bidi, M (19th April 2017).

[12] ibid

[13] Chitumba, P (2017) Thirsty Redcliff residents demand Mayor’s resignation. [online] Available at http://www.chronicle.co.zw/thirsty-redcliff-residents-demand-mayors-resignation/ [Accessed on 24 April 2017]

[14] ibid

[15] Members of the Rutendo, Simbi Park and Ridgeway Residents and Ratepayers Association .  Interviewed by: Chinhamo, O. and Bidi, M (19th April 2017).

[16] Resident of the Magamba area. Interviewed by: Chinhamo, O. and Bidi, M. (19th April 2017).

[17] Members of the Rutendo, Simbi Park and Ridgeway Residents and Ratepayers Association

. Interviewed by: Chinhamo, O. and Bidi, M (19th April 2017).

[18] Chikari, A (2017) Redcliff Town seeks water treatment plan investors. [online] Available at http://www.chronicle.co.zw/redcliff-town-seeks-water-treatment-plant-investors/ [Accessed on 24 April 2017]

[19] Resident. Interviewed by: Chinhamo, O. and Bidi, M (23rd of  April 2017).

[20] ibid

[21] Members of TORRA and the Rutendo, Simbi Park and Ridgeway Residents and Ratepayers Association. Interviewed by: Chinhamo, O. and Bidi, M (19th April 2017).

[22] Chikari, A (2017). Redcliff charges residents flat fee for water. [online]. Available at http://www.chronicle.co.zw/redcliff-charges-residents-flat-fee-for-water/ [Accessed on 24 April 2017]

[23] Chikari, A (2017) Redcliff Town seeks water treatment plan investors. [online] Available at http://www.chronicle.co.zw/redcliff-town-seeks-water-treatment-plant-investors/ [Accessed on 24 April 2017]

About Anti-Corruption Trust of Southern Africa

The Anti-Corruption Trust of Southern Africa (ACT-Southern Africa) is a non-profit making organisation registered to facilitate the sharing of anti-corruption best practices and advocacy against corruption in Southern Africa.
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